spanish colonial era

The Spanish brought new crops for cultivation. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Spaniards had seen the disappearance of the indigenous populations in the Caribbean, and with that, the disappearance of their main source of wealth, propelling Spaniards to expand their regions of control. In colonial Mexico, there are petitions to the king about a variety of issues important to particular indigenous communities when the noblemen did not get a favorable response from the local friar or priest or local royal officials. Spaniards persuaded the leaders of subordinate city-states and one city-state never conquered by the Aztecs, Tlaxcala, to join them in huge numbers, with thousands, perhaps tens of thousands of indigenous warriors. Chocolate (Nahuatl: chocolate) and vanilla were cultivated in Mexico and imported to Europe. [73], The Valladolid debate (1550–1551) was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers. The islands were part of the larger Spanish East Indies. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. [34] It was governed by the president of the Audiencia of Bogotá, and comprised an area corresponding mainly to modern-day Colombia and parts of Venezuela. Sort by: Top Voted. Each and every period of its history is crucial in some way to understanding the present-day character of the land. In 1574, Philip II promulgated the Order of Patronage (Ordenaza del Patronato) ordering the religious orders to turn over their parishes to the secular clergy, a policy that secular clerics had long sought for the central areas of empire, with their large indigenous populations. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, p.89. [65] To these political functions of the governor, it could be joined the military ones, according to military requirements, with the rank of Captain general. "Social climbers: Changing patterns of mobility among the Indians of colonial Peru." The Plan of Iguala was part of the peace treaty to establish a constitutional foundation for an independent Mexico. "Hoofprints: Cattle Ranching and Landscape Transformation" in, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Latin American economy § Colonial era and Independence (ca. [151], The life of seventeenth-century Mexican nun, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, renowned in her lifetime, has been portrayed in a 1990 Argentine film, I, the Worst of All[152] and in a TV miniseries Juana Inés. Even so, the Colonial Period (1492-1810) stands out as being the era that did the most to shape what Latin America is today. [2], By contrast, the indigenous population plummeted by an estimated 80% in the first century and a half following Columbus's voyages, primarily through the spread of disease, forced labor and slavery for resource extraction, and Missionization. The leader of an expedition, the adelantado was a senior with material wealth and standing who could persuade the crown to issue him a license for an expedition. Spaniards established a network of settlements in areas they conquered and controlled. The conquest of central Mexico sparked further Spanish conquests, following the pattern of conquered and consolidated regions being the launching point for further expeditions. The ideas from the French and the American Revolution influenced the efforts. Participants supplied their own armor and weapons, and those who had a horse received two shares, one for himself, the second recognizing the value of the horse as a machine of war. It is estimated that during the colonial period (1492–1832), a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era (1850–1950); the estimate is 250,000 in the 16th century, and most during the 18th century as immigration was encouraged by the new Bourbon Dynasty. The Philippines, ruled from Mexico City was a Spanish territory for 333 years (1565-1898).. Charles sought to be elected Holy Roman Emperor and was willing to pay whatever it took to achieve that. [150], The Mission was a 1996 film idealizing a Jesuit mission to the Guaraní in the territory disputed between Spain and Portugal. The first Spanish settlement was established in 1598 in what is now Guinsiliban. The diocesan clergy) (also called the secular clergy were under the direct authority of bishops, who were appointed by the crown, through the power granted by the pope in the Patronato Real. • Literature started to flourish during his time. He was also Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, probably the most powerful man in Europe at that time. The two main areas of Spanish settlement after 1550 were Mexico and Peru, the sites of the Aztec and Inca indigenous civilizations. They were aggressive in making their investment pay, alienating the indigenous populations and Spaniards alike. [116], The other frontier institution was the religious mission to convert the indigenous populations. Restall, Matthew. Melville, Elinor G.K. A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico. During the Bourbon Reforms in the mid-eighteenth century, the crown systematically sought to centralize power in its own hands and diminish that of its overseas possessions, appointing peninsular-born Spaniards to Audiencias. Spanish conquerors holding grants of indigenous labor in encomienda ruthlessly exploited them. The cabildo was composed of the prominent residents (vecinos) of the municipality, so that governance was restricted to a male elite, with majority of the population exercising power. For the Spanish, these populations were there for their exploitation, to supply their own settlements with foodstuffs, but more importantly for the Spanish, to extract mineral wealth or produce another valuable commodity for Spanish enrichment. The Colonial Era The following 300 years mark the Colonial era, when the territories of New Spain were expanded under the control of local viceroys, named by the Spanish crown. The Spanish founded San Sebastián de Uraba in 1509 but abandoned it within the year. Colonial administration at all levels was carried out in the name of the monarch. "Kurakas and commerce: a chapter in the evolution of Andean society." •A mission was a settlement set up in Indian Territory.Friars, or members of clergy who belong to religious groups, invited Indians to live at the missions. Queen Isabel was the first monarch that laid the first stone for the protection of the indigenous peoples in her testament in which the Catholic monarch prohibited the enslavement of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Far more famous now is Lope de Aguirre, who led a mutiny against Ursúa, who was murdered. The dearth of Spanish women at the start of the Colonial era led to numerous unions between Indian women and Spaniards. [102] Besides court of justice, the Audiencias had functions of government as counterweight the authority of the viceroys, since they could communicate with both the Council of the Indies and the king without the requirement of requesting authorization from the viceroy. The Spaniards ruled the Philippines for 300 years under these conditions, continually harassed by Chinese pirates, by the Moros (Mohammedans from Mindanao and Sulu), by the Dutch and the English who wanted to take possession of the Islands, and finally by the frequent revolts on the part of the natives. He arrived in March 1521 during his circumnavigation of the globe. To satisfy his debts to the Welsers, he granted them the right to colonize and exploit western Venezuela, with the proviso that they found two towns with 300 settlers each and construct fortifications. The Spanish naval ships began to fly this flag in the early 1500s in honor of their king. [156], Invasion of the American continents and incorporation into the Spanish Empire, "Conquista" redirects here. Pedro de Mendoza and Domingo Martínez de Irala, who led the original expedition, went inland and founded Asunción, Paraguay, which became the Spaniards' base. Missions in Texas •The mission-presidio system: used by Spanish to gain control in other parts of the new world. The film starred Robert De Niro, Jeremy Irons, and Liam Neeson and It won an Academy Award. In 1532 at the Battle of Cajamarca a group of Spaniards under Francisco Pizarro and their indigenous Andean Indian auxiliaries native allies ambushed and captured the Emperor Atahualpa of the Inca Empire. Although there were restrictions of appointees' ties to local elite society and participation in the local economy, they acquired dispensations from the cash-strapped crown. Stanford University Press, 2004. Spaniards spent over 25 years in the Caribbean where their initial high hopes of dazzling wealth gave way to continuing exploitation of disappearing indigenous populations, exhaustion of local gold mines, initiation of cane sugar cultivation as an export product, and importation of African slaves as a labor force. [13] The deeply pious Isabella saw the expansion of Spain's sovereignty inextricably paired with the evangelization of non-Christian peoples, the so-called “spiritual conquest” with the military conquest. For all practical purposes, this was slavery. [149] The similarly epic and dark journey of Lope de Aguirre was made into a film by Werner Herzog, Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972), starring Klaus Kinsky. Depending on the conditions in a jurisdiction, the position of factor/veedor was often eliminated, as well. Works by historians in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have expanded the understanding of the impact of the Spanish conquest and changes during the more than three hundred years of Spanish rule. While it sought to duplicate the Spanish lifeways of the Old World, it created its own unique traditions, identities, and cuisines. [55], The impossibility of the physical presence of the monarch and the necessity of strong royal governance in The Indies resulted in the appointment of viceroys ("vice-kings"), the direct representation of the monarch, in both civil and ecclesiastical spheres. “The Spanish Borderlands, Historiography Redux.”, Spanish Exploration and Conquest of North America, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 16:36. Other notable historical figures in the production are Malinche, Cortés cultural translator, and other conquerors Pedro de Alvarado, Cristóbal de Olid, Bernal Díaz del Castillo. The region overseen by the archbishop was divided into large units, the diocese, headed by a bishop. Religious orders had their own internal regulations and leadership. Another major export product was cochineal, a color-fast red dye made from dried bugs living on cacti. According to Cook, the indigenous Californian population at first contact, in 1769, was about 310,000 and had dropped to 25,000 by 1910. Natural Texas and It's People Era. Cane sugar imported from the Old World was the high value, low bulk export product that became the bulwark of tropical economies of the Caribbean islands and coastal Tierra Firme (the Spanish Main), as well as Portuguese Brazil. • Spanish colonization in the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor- general in the Philippines. Corregidores collected the tribute from indigenous communities and regulated forced indigenous labor. The Spanish colonization of the Philippines from 1565 to 1898 brought about profound changes in the life and art of the Filipinos. Since the flags of Ireland and Scotland (and the flag of Great Britain incorporating the cross of Scotland) are also St. Andrew's crosses, when speaking of the Spanish flag, this design is best called the Burgundian Cross, or the Cross of Burgundy. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. [72] Then the first such in 1542; the legal thought behind them was the basis of modern International law. Though influenced by Spanish traditions from the Iberian peninsula, the culture that emerged in the colonial New World was a mixture of European, African, and local Native customs. The Conquest of Michoacán: The Spanish Domination of the Tarascan Kingdom in Western Mexico, 1521–1530. The new territories extended through most of Central America and much of the south and west of what is now the United States. [48][49] Arguably the most significant introduction was diseases brought to the Americas, which devastated indigenous populations in a series of epidemics. Jun 8, 2017 What is it about the allure of a historic house? Missions were meant to enslave local American Indians. [140] With the 1992 commemoration (and critique) of Columbus, more cinematic and television depictions of the era appeared, including a TV miniseries with Gabriel Byrne as Columbus. Ferdinand Magellan was the first European recorded to have landed in the Philippines. The crown had authority to draw the boundaries for dioceses and parishes. The jagged edges of the cross on the Spanish flag represent these trees with the branched lopped off. These styles are associated with the houses, churches and government buildings of the period from about 1600 through the 19th century. barangay system during the pre-spanish era Before the arrival of the Spanish conquerors in the Philippines in the 16 th century, Barangay is used to be their form of government. Spanish colonization. In 1686, William Dampier visited Mindanao and observed that smoking was a widespread custom. [83] A similar legal apparatus was set up in Lima.[84]. Natural Texas and It's People Era. A saltire is an X figure; raguly refers to the jagged edges of the cross. spain 1/2 real + 1 real + 2 real mexico spanish colonial era lot 7 silver coins. [148], The epic journey of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca has been portrayed in a 1991 feature-length Mexican film, Cabeza de Vaca. It consisted of a number of opposing views about the way natives were to be integrated into colonial life, their conversion to Christianity and their rights and obligations. An immediate consequence was the birth of many mixed-blood–mostly illegitimate–offspring. spain 1/2 real + 1 real + 2 real mexico spanish colonial era lot 7 silver coins. Later conquests in Mexico were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than the conquest of the Aztecs. Expeditions continued to explore territories in hopes of finding another Aztec or Inca empire, with no further success. Among the most notable expeditions are Hernando de Soto into southeast North America, leaving from Cuba (1539-42); Francisco Vázquez de Coronado to northern Mexico (1540-42), and Gonzalo Pizarro to Amazonia, leaving from Quito, Ecuador (1541-42). Venezuela's historical development during the colonial period took place in six subregions. Spain's colonies in the New World were, legally, the personal patrimony of the king, and he held absolute control over all matters in Ecuador. [35], Venezuela was first visited by Europeans during the 1490s, when Columbus was in control of the region, and the region as a source for indigenous slaves for Spaniards in Cuba and Hispaniola, since the Spanish destruction of the local indigenous population. Although, they were living separately, they were similar in many ways, their religion, mode of dressing, houses, system of government and … 5, p. 453. European background: Spain and Portugal. Spaniards waged a fifty-year war (ca. All of the colonies, except Cuba and Puerto Rico, attained independence by the 1820s. [68], Beginning in 1522 in the newly conquered Mexico, government units in the Spanish Empire had a royal treasury controlled by a set of oficiales reales (royal officials). SPANISH COLONIAL ERA. [53] The crown sought to establish and maintain control over its overseas possessions through a complex, hierarchical bureaucracy, which in many ways was decentralized. Up Next. [56] Ecclesiastics also functioned as administrators overseas in the early Caribbean period, particularly Frey Nicolás de Ovando, who was sent to investigate the administration of Francisco de Bobadilla, the governor appointed to succeed Christopher Columbus. Pre Colonial and Spanish era. "Cook, Sherburne F. 1976b. Europeans immigrated from various parts of Spain, and also initially more men than women. During the Spanish colonization in the Philippines , the government was composed of two branches, the executive and the judicial. ", Weber, David J. Identify the main Spanish American colonial settlements of the 1500s and 1600s Discuss economic, political, and demographic similarities and differences between the Spanish colonies During the 1500s, Spain expanded its colonial empire to the Philippines in the Far East and to areas in the Americas that later became the United States. The Spanish Colonial Tradition in Philippine Visual Arts. June 20, 2011. They established the colony of Klein-Venedig in 1528. It became the second-most important export product from Spanish America after silver. Florida's Spanish colonial heritage began nearly 100 years before Jamestown in 1513, when Juan Ponce de León landed, and ended when Florida became a territory of the United States in 1821. $25.00 shipping. Indigenous elites could use the noble titles don and doña, were exempt from the head-tax, and could entail their landholdings into cacicazgos. Cline, and Javier Pescador, Cook, David Noble. Cortés’s seeking indigenous allies was a typical tactic of warfare: divide and conquer. For the colony's continued existence, a reliable source of labor was needed. We had everything in our hands and we were free to do anything we wanted. He strongly influenced the formulation of colonial policy under the Catholic Monarchs, and was instrumental in establishing the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) (1503), which enabled crown control over trade and immigration. Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. The Maya world: Yucatec culture and society, 1550-1850. The bishop challenged the Jesuits' continuing to hold Indian parishes and function as priests without the required royal licenses. However, the Spanish Empire could not have ruled these vast territories and dense indigenous populations without utilizing the existing indigenous political and economic structures at the local level. Music of the philippines during pre spanish era 1. [75] In Mexico, Don Martín Cortés, the son and legal heir of conqueror Hernán Cortés, and other heirs of encomiendas led a failed revolt against the crown. Ecuador Table of Contents. In the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions (entradas) of discovery, conquest, and settlement resided in the monarchy. Spanish settlement in Mexico “largely replicated the organization of the area in preconquest times” while in Peru, the center of the Incas was too far south, too remote, and at too high an altitude for the Spanish capital. $25.00 shipping. The crown attempted to curb Spaniards' exploitation, banning Spaniards' bequeathing their private grants of indigenous communities' tribute and encomienda labor in 1542 in the New Laws. The vast majority of the decline happened after the Spanish period, during the Mexican and US periods of Californian history (1821–1910), with the most dramatic collapse (200,000 to 25,000) occurring in the US period (1846–1910).[128][129][130]. The capital Lima was built near the Pacific coast. The expansion of Spain’s territory took place under the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, whose marriage marked the beginning of Spanish power beyond the Iberian peninsula. 1 South Castillo Drive MUSIC OF THE PHILIPPINES DURING PRE-SPANISH ERA 2. The Jesuits were effective missionaries in frontier areas until their expulsion from Spain and its empire in 1767. Stanford University Press, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMecham1966 (, Burkholder, Mark A. [51] In southern Chile and the pampas, the Araucanians (Mapuche) prevented further Spanish expansion. [100] They were the "center of the administrative system [and] gave the government of the Indies a strong basis of permanence and continuity. [59], The politics of asserting royal authority to oppose Columbus resulted in the suppression of his privileges and the creation of territorial governance under royal authority. The introduction of sheep production was an ecological disaster in places where they were raised in great numbers, since they ate vegetation to the ground, preventing the regeneration of plants.[52]. The Philippine Economy During the Spanish Colonial Period. The empire in the Indies was a newly established dependency of the kingdom of Castile alone, so crown power was not impeded by any existing cortes (i.e. In the colonial era, Spain initiated the Encomienda System, under which thousands of people and families were entrusted to colonial officials. The veedor, or overseer, position quickly disappeared in most jurisdictions, subsumed into the position of factor. The laws were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in the Americas, particularly with regards to treatment of native Indians in the institution of the encomienda. We didn’t have anything ruling over us and dictating us what is needed to be done. Silver was the bonanza the Spaniards sought. He also had to attract participants to the expedition who staked their own lives and meager fortunes on the expectation of the expedition’s success. Ore was crushed with the aid of mules and then mercury could be applied to draw out the pure silver. One was the presence or absence of dense, hierarchically organized indigenous populations that could be made to work. In Mexico, Bishop Juan de Zumárraga prosecuted and had executed in 1539 a Nahua lord, known as Don Carlos of Texcoco for apostasy and sedition for having converted to Christianity and then renounced his conversion and urged others to do so as well. A well-connected settler in Cuba, Hernán Cortés received authorization in 1519 by the governor of Cuba to form an expedition of exploration-only to this far western region. The crown was open to limiting the inheritance of encomiendas in perpetuity as a way to extinguish the coalescence of a group of Spaniards impinging on royal power. The Spaniards and Portuguese inhabit the Iberian peninsula, which forms the southwest portion of Europe. The Mixtecs of colonial Oaxaca: Ñudzahui history, sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. For Spaniards, the fierce Chichimecas barred them for exploiting mining resources in northern Mexico. Viceroyalties were the largest territory unit of administration in the civil and religious spheres and the boundaries of civil and ecclesiastical governance coincided by design, to ensure crown control over both bureaucracies. Treasury officials were supposed to be paid out of the income from the province, and were normally prohibited from engaging in income-producing activities.[70]. SPANISH COLONIAL ERA. Most agriculture and ranching supplied local needs, since transportation was difficult, slow, and expensive. INTRODUCTION Long before the arrival of the Spaniards, ancient Filipinos were living in scattered barangays and ruled by different chieftains. The crown separated them into the República de Indios. On the death, unauthorized absence, retirement or removal of a governor, the treasury officials would jointly govern the province until a new governor appointed by the king could take up his duties. Eventually, the army also began to fly this flag, and it came to represent Spain. It has been estimated that over 1.86 million Spaniards emigrated to Latin America in the period between 1492 and 1824, with millions more continuing to immigrate following independence. [85] Indigenous noblemen were particularly important in the early period of colonization, since the economy of the encomienda was initially built on the extraction of tribute and labor from the commoners in their communities. We didn’t have anything ruling over us and dictating us what is needed to be done. [94] Based in Castile, with the assignment of the governance of the Indies, it was thus responsible for drafting legislation, proposing the appointments to the King for civil government as well as ecclesiastical appointments, and pronouncing judicial sentences; as maximum authority in the overseas territories, the Council of the Indies took over both the institutions in the Indies as the defense of the interests of the Crown, the Catholic Church, and of indigenous peoples. 84-85. Large deposits were found in a single mountain in the viceroyalty of Peru, the Cerro Rico, in what is now Bolivia, and in several places outside of the dense indigenous zone of settlement in northern Mexico, Zacatecas and Guanajuato. The other was the presence or absence of an exploitable resource for the enrichment of settlers. The loss of indigenous population had a direct impact on Spaniards as well, since increasingly they saw those populations as a source of their own wealth, disappearing before their eyes.[50]. Vol. "[54] Reforms sought to centralize government control through reorganization of administration, reinvigorate the economies of Spain and the Spanish empire through changes in mercantile and fiscal policies, defend Spanish colonies and territorial claims through the establishment of a standing military, undermine the power of the Catholic church, and rein in the power of the American-born elites.[55]. They replicated the existing indigenous network of settlements, but added a port city. "John Francis Bannon and the Historiography of the Spanish Borderlands: Retrospect and Prospect. In Peru, the attempt of the newly appointed viceroy, Blasco Núñez Vela, to implement the New Laws so soon after the conquest sparked a revolt by conquerors against the viceroy and the viceroy was killed in 1546. Comparing European and Native American cultures. Warren, J. Benedict. Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada was the leading conquistador with his brother Hernán second in command. [29][30][31][32] But not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532. [107], After the reign of Philip II, the municipal offices, including the councilors, were auctioned to alleviate the need for money of the Crown, even the offices could also be sold, which became hereditary,[108] so that the government of the cities went on to hands of urban oligarchies. Spaniards had some knowledge of the existing indigenous practices of labor and tribute, so that learning in more detail what tribute particular regions delivered to the Aztec empire prompted the creation of Codex Mendoza, a codification for Spanish use. [43] Juan de Oñate expanded Spanish sovereignty over what is now New Mexico. House Tour: A Spanish Colonial Channels A Bygone Era. Viceroys served as the vice-patron of the Catholic Church, including the Inquisition, established in the seats of the viceroyalties (Mexico City and Lima). These were often led by secondary leaders, such as Pedro de Alvarado. The Spanish took advantage of a recent civil war between the factions of the two brothers Emperor Atahualpa and Huáscar, and the enmity of indigenous nations the Incas had subjugated, such as the Huancas, Chachapoyas, and Cañaris. [76], The conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires ended their sovereignty over their respective territorial expanses, replaced by the Spanish Empire. Puerto Rico continues to be a possession of the United States, now officially continues as a self-governing unincorporated territory. In the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over Greater Andes Region. Expeditions continued into the 1540s and regional capitals founded by the 1550s. Authored by Spanish Governor-General Narciso Claveria y Zaldua and Domingo Abella, the … In the early 19th century, the Spanish American wars of independence resulted in the secession and subsequent division of most Spanish territories in the Americas, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, which were finally lost to The United States in 1898, following the Spanish–American War. In the twentieth century, there have been a number of films depicting the life of Christopher Columbus. "Latinized" America was a diverse, capable, and often complex society. 1550-1600) to subdue them, but peace was only achieved by Spaniards’ making significant donations of food and other commodities the Chichimeca demanded. During Christopher Columbus's third voyage, when Europeans first set sight on the coast of Venezuela, there was nothing that drew the special attention of the Spanish. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. [58] In addition, the Casa de Contratación took charge of the fiscal organization, and of the organization and judicial control of the trade with the Indies. Almost 500 years ago, Cabeza de Vaca documented his travels from this area to … “House of Welser” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. [93], In 1524 the Council of the Indies was established, following the system of system of Councils that advised the monarch and made decisions on his behalf about specific matters of government. ‘’The Aztecs under Spanish Rule. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán, the Spanish conquest of Guatemala, the conquest of the Tarascans/Purépecha of Michoacan, the war of Mexico's west, and the Chichimeca War in northern Mexico expanded Spanish control over territory and indigenous populations. During the early era and under the Habsburgs, the crown established a regional layer of colonial jurisdiction in the institution of Corregimiento, which was between the Audiencia and town councils. They were initially a scarce commodity, but horse breeding became an active industry. The Spanish colonial strategy was to undermine the native oral tradition by substituting for it the story of the Passion of Christ (Lumbera, p. 14). MUSIC OF THE PHILIPPINES DURING PRE-SPANISH ERA 2. There are many such works for Mexico, often drawing on native-language documentation in Nahuatl,[86][87] Mixtec,[88] and Yucatec Maya. $115.00. [131] In the Andes, Viceroy Francisco de Toledo revived the indigenous rotary labor system of the mita to supply labor for silver mining. Philippine Literature in the Spanish Colonial Period with Reflection February 23, 2016 March 6, 2016 The existing literature of the Philippine ethnic groups at the time of conquest and conversion into Christianity was mainly oral, consisting of epics, legends, songs, riddles, and proverbs. He claimed land for the king of Spain but was killed by a local chief. Hispanic American Historical Review 53.4 (1973): 581-599. 1500–1850), Timeline of imperialism § Colonization of North America, "Victimario Histórico Militar Capítulo IX De las 16 mayores Guerras y Genocidios del siglo XVI de 60.000 a 3.000.000 de muertos", "DEATH BY GOVERNMENT Chapter 3 Pre-Twentieth Century Democide", Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture 1996, "Su Majestad quiere gobernar: la Administración española en Indias durante los siglos XVI y XVII", "Las instituciones políticas en la región de Cuyo", "El gobierno y la imagen de la Monarquía Hispánica en los viajeros de los siglos XVI y XVII. [39], The spectacular conquests of central Mexico (1519-21) and Peru (1532) sparked Spaniards' hopes of finding yet another high civilization. Mining regions in both Mexico were remote, outside the zone of indigenous settlement in central and southern Mexico Mesoamerica, but mines in Zacatecas (founded 1548) and Guanajuato (founded 1548) were key hubs in the colonial economy. [61] To carry out the expedition (entrada), which entailed exploration, conquest, and initial settlement of the territory, the king, as sovereign, and the appointed leader of an expedition (adelantado) agreed to an itemized contract (capitulación), with the specifics of the conditions of the expedition in a particular territory. [74], The indigenous populations in the Caribbean became the focus of the crown in its roles as sovereigns of the empire and patron of the Catholic Church. $25.00 shipping. The Spanish time was basically when the natives started to learn how to live “civilized” and when they were given a soul that made them “real people” (The official … By Kaitlin Petersen. Spaniards also imported citrus trees, establishing orchards of oranges, lemons, and limes, and grapefruit. "Juzgado General de Indios del Perú o Juzgado Particular de Indios de el cercado de Lima.". [144] A 1995 Bolivian-made film is in some ways similar to Even the Rain is To Hear the Birds Singing, with a modern film crew going to an indigenous settlement to shot a film about the Spanish conquest and end up replicating aspects of the conquest. [22][23] Even by the mid-1510s, the western Caribbean was largely unexplored by Spaniards. With the conquests of the Aztec and Inca empires, large numbers of Spaniards emigrated from the Iberian peninsula to seek their fortune or to pursue better economic conditions for themselves. spain 2 real mexico ferdinand vii spanish colonial era lot 5 silver coins. [103] The Bourbon-era intendants were appointed and relatively well paid. True or false? [139] Only the most valuable low bulk products would be exported. On its southern edge, Tejas was bordered by the province of Coahuila. A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción, now the capital of Paraguay. [141] Christopher Columbus: The Discovery (1992) has Georges Corroface as Columbus with Marlon Brando as Tomás de Torquemada and Tom Selleck as King Ferdinand and Rachel Ward as Queen Isabela. From the Spanish viewpoint, their source of labor and viability of their own settlements was at risk. The Franciscans took over some former Jesuit missions and continued the expansion of areas incorporated into the empire. Literature started to flourish during his time. Lawyers for these cases were funded by a half-real tax, an early example of legal aid for the poor. Viceroys were responsible for good governance of their territories, economic development, and humane treatment of the indigenous populations.[98]. The Spanish network needed a port city so that inland settlements could be connected by sea to Spain. The Spanish expansion has sometimes been succinctly summed up as "gold, glory, God." The Nahuas after the Conquest. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was one of four survivors of that expedition, writing an account of it. Although Spaniards had hoped to find vast quantities of gold, the discovery of large quantities of silver became the motor of the Spanish colonial economy, a major source of income for the Spanish crown, and transformed the international economy. [15] Expeditions required authorization by the crown, which laid out the terms of such expedition. Important indigenous crops that transformed Europe were the potato and maize, which produced abundant crops that led to the expansion of populations in Europe. The Spanish colonization of the Americas began under the Crown of Castile and spearheaded by the Spanish conquistadors. In central Mexico, there exist minutes of the sixteenth-century meetings in Nahuatl of the Tlaxcala cabildo. 1, pp. As the indigenous populations declined, the need for corregimiento decreased and then suppressed, with the alcaldía mayor remaining an institution until it was replaced in the eighteenth-century Bourbon Reforms by royal officials, Intendants. Ships and cargoes were registered, and emigrants vetted to prevent migration of anyone not of old Christian heritage, (i.e., with no Jewish or Muslim ancestry), and facilitated the migration of families and women. Bolivia's Colonial Era 1500-1800 A.D. Bolivia's history changed dramatically when in 1532 the Spanish defeated the great Incas, and other ethnic groups that had historically inhabited the area. Unlike Spanish expansion in the Caribbean, which involved limited armed combat and sometimes the participation of indigenous allies, the conquest of central Mexico was protracted and necessitated indigenous allies who chose to participate for their own purposes. The Kingdom of Portugal authorized a series of voyages down the coast of Africa and when they rounded the southern tip, were able to sail to India and further east. Horses that escaped Spanish control were captured by indigenous; many indigenous also raided for horses. Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos denounced Spanish cruelty and abuse in a sermon in 1511, which comes down to us in the writings of Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas. Borah, Woodrow. Spanish authorities used to confine state prisoners in the hole to the brimful without food and water and just sufficient air to prevent them from dying immediately. Practice: Labor, slavery, and caste in the Spanish colonial system. Since in central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica) and the highland Andes indigenous peoples had existing traditions of payment of tribute and required labor service, the Spanish could tap into these existing to extract wealth. Pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and chickens allowed Spaniards to eat a diet with which they were familiar. Spanish possession and rule of its remaining colonies in the Americas ended in that year with its sovereignty transferred to the United States. Cacao beans for chocolate emerged as an export product as Europeans developed a taste for sweetened chocolate. Farming gave Native Americans a dependable source of food. The Spanish did establish the settlement of Chile in 1541, founded by Pedro de Valdivia. Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines. ... Spanish conquistadors, settlers, priests, or colonial officials were given a repartimiento, or grant of land. Muldoon, James. We have included primary sources, databases, and print material that may be of … The Philippines, ruled from Mexico City was a Spanish territory for 333 years (1565-1898).. $100.00. Start studying Spanish Colonial Era. Merchants formed an important element in the Spanish population. [14] These formal arrangements between Spain and Portugal and the pope were ignored by other European powers. as Spaniards expanded their control over territories and their indigenous populations. [16][17] For the conquest era, two names of Spaniards are generally known because they led the conquests of high indigenous civilizations, Hernán Cortés, leader of the expedition that conquered the Aztecs of Central Mexico, and Francisco Pizarro, leader of the conquest of the Inca in Peru. In Peru, Spaniards founded the city of Lima as their capital and its nearby port of Callao, rather than the high-altitude site of Cuzco, the center of Inca rule. Explore Texas by Historical Eras Spanish Colonial 1689-1821 by Katie Whitehurst. The Chichimeca in northern Mexico, the Comanche in the northern Great Plains and the Mapuche in southern Chile and the pampas of Argentina resisted Spanish conquest. [138] With only a small labor force to draw on, ranching was an ideal economic activity for some regions. Spanish Colonial History; Spanish Colonial History. From that misperception the Spanish called the indigenous peoples of the Americas, "Indians" (indios), lumping a multiplicity of civilizations, groups, and individuals into a single category of The Other. The literature of pre-colonial Filipinos bore the marks of the community. Audiencia judgments and other functions became more tied to the locality and less to the crown and impartial justice. They forbade the maltreatment of natives, and endorsed the Indian Reductions with attempts of conversion to Catholicism. Once the Spanish settlement in the Caribbean occurred, Spain and Portugal formalized a division of the world between them in the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. As many as 60 salaried soldiers were garrisoned in presidios. [147] A major production in Mexico was the 1998 film, The Other Conquest, which focuses on a Nahua in the post-conquest era and the evangelization of central Mexico. Corregimiento expanded "royal authority from the urban centers into the countryside and over the indigenous population. $135.00. In 1810 Mexico declared independence, with the Mexican War of Independence following for over a decade. [102] This direct correspondence of the Audiencia with the Council of the Indies made it possible for the Council to give the Audiencia direction on general aspects of government.[99]. [24][25][26], The capture of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II by Cortés was not a brilliant stroke of innovation, but came from the playbook that the Spanish developed during their period in the Caribbean. Tribute goods in Mexico were most usually lengths of cotton cloth, woven by women, and maize and other foodstuffs produced by men. parliament), administrative or ecclesiastical institution, or seigneurial group. The story is that the branches were roughly hacked off two small trees, and the trees were tied together to make the cross. In 1898, the United States achieved victory in the Spanish–American War with Spain, ending the Spanish colonial era. "Not a Man of Contradiction: Zumárraga as Protector and Inquisitor of the Indigenous People of Central Mexico." Though influenced by Spanish traditions from the Iberian peninsula, the culture that emerged in the colonial New World was a mixture of European, African, and local Native customs. In Peru, the Cerro Rico's ore was processed from the local mercury mine of Huancavelica, while in Mexico mercury was imported from the Almadén mercury mine in Spain. The composition of the expedition was the standard pattern, with a senior leader, and participating men investing in the enterprise with the full expectation of rewards if they did not lose their lives. 1 (2012): 26-40. Potosí (founded 1545) was in the zone of dense indigenous settlement, so that labor could be mobilized on traditional patterns to extract the ore. An important element for productive mining was mercury for processing high-grade ore. Peru had a source in Huancavelica (founded 1572), while Mexico had to rely on mercury imported from Spain. Settled from the south were Buenos Aires (1536, 1580); Asunción (1537); Potosí (1545); La Paz, Bolivia (1548); and Tucumán (1553). Mounted indigenous warriors were significant foes for Spaniards. In the eighteenth-century reforms, the Viceroyalty of Peru was reorganized, splitting off portions to form the Viceroyalty of New Granada (Colombia) (1739) and the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata (Argentina) (1776), leaving Peru with jurisdiction over Peru, Charcas, and Chile. Vol. Spanish colonial architecture reflects Filipino identity mostly through the Religious Architecture. The reorganization of administration has been called "a revolution in government. Held in the Colegio de San Gregorio, in the Spanish city of Valladolid, it was a moral and theological debate about the colonization of the Americas, its justification for the conversion to Catholicism and more specifically about the relations between the European settlers and the natives of the New World. Ultimately, the kingdom became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada first in 1717 and permanently in 1739. Spanish Colonial Period of time when the Spanish built settlements in Texas which included missions, towns, presidios, and ranches 1718 Mission San Antonio de Valero was established as a supply point between the Rio Grande and East Texas In Mexico, the crown established the General Indian Court (Juzgado General de Indios), which heard disputes affecting individual indigenous as well as indigenous communities. Terms in this set (24) Natural Texas and It's People Era. 2, p. 99. Colonial administration at all levels was carried out in the name of the monarch. [126], Native populations declined significantly during the period of Spanish expansion. Other imports were figs, apricots, cherries, pears, and peaches among others. After several attempts to set up independent states in the 1810s, the kingdom and the viceroyalty ceased to exist altogether in 1819 with the establishment of Gran Colombia. "La catastrophe démographique" (The Demographic Catastrophe) in. In an effort to solidify their control over North American resources and territory, European colonial powers began to construct fortifications to protect their settlements from foreign encroachment. Best was gold, but silver was found in abundance. [citation needed] The overwhelming cause of the decline in both Mexico and Peru was infectious diseases, such as smallpox and measles,[127] although the brutality of the Encomienda also played a significant part in the population decline. The Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for "Liberators") were the principal leaders of the Spanish American wars of independence. Effective Spanish settlement began in 1493, when Columbus brought livestock, seeds, agricultural equipment. The New Laws of 1542 were the result, limiting the power of encomenderos, the private holders of grants to indigenous labor previously held in perpetuity. Neither was effective in its purpose. The Spanish period. [67], Provinces in the Spanish Empire had a royal treasury controlled by a set of oficiales reales (royal officials). Spaniards continued to expand their presence in the circum-Caribbean region with expeditions. Though influenced by Spanish traditions from the Iberian peninsula, the culture that emerged in the colonial New World was a mixture of European, African, and local Native customs. To feed urban populations and mining workforces, small-scale farms (ranchos), (estancias), and large-scale enterprises (haciendas) emerged to fill the demand, especially for foodstuffs that Spaniards wanted to eat, most especially wheat. $115.00. Spanish Colonial History; Spanish Colonial History. In Peru, silver was found in a single silver mountain, the Cerro Rico de Potosí, still producing silver in the 21st century. "Peace by purchase" ended the conflict. "Latinized" America was a diverse, capable, and often complex society. Caste and Class Structure in Colonial Spanish AmericaDuring most of the colonial era, Spanish American society had a pyramidal structure with a small number of Spaniards at the top, a group of mixedrace people beneath them, and at the bottom a large indigenous population and small number of slaves, usually of African origin. They were predominantly criollos (Americas-born people of European ancestry, mostly Spanish or Portuguese), bourgeois and influenced by liberalism and in some cases with military training in the mother country. Their role in judicial affairs and in overseeing the implementation of royal legislation made their decisions important for the communities they served." Western Venezuela’s history took an atypical direction in 1528, when Spain’s first Hapsburg monarch, Charles I granted rights to colonize to the German banking family of the Welsers. Cumaná in Venezuela was the first permanent settlement founded by Europeans in the mainland Americas,[20] in 1501 by Franciscan friars, but due to successful attacks by the indigenous people, it had to be refounded several times, until Diego Hernández de Serpa's foundation in 1569. [69], The treasury officials were appointed by the king, and were largely independent of the authority of the viceroy, audiencia president or governor. Philippine Literature Under Spanish Colonial 24. From decades of research, he made estimates for the pre-contact population and the history of demographic decline during the Spanish and post-Spanish periods. One in 1949 stars Frederic March as Columbus. 32084. 5, pp. The last aspect of Spanish colonial society that I wanna point out is the racial caste system that developed in the New World. The Audiencias were initially constituted by the crown as a key administrative institution with royal authority and loyalty to the crown as opposed to conquerors and first settlers. That expedition was to make world history. The structure of the hierarchy was in many ways parallel to that of civil governance. Ecuador Table of Contents. [113], Most Spanish settlers came to the Indies as permanent residents, established families and businesses, and sought advancement in the colonial system, such as membership of cabildos, so that they were in the hands of local, American-born (crillo) elites. Cathy Kincaid mixes disparate patterns, fine antiques, and a sublime palette in a historic Dallas home. Pope Alexander VI in a 4 May 1493 papal decree, Inter caetera, divided rights to lands in the Western Hemisphere between Spain and Portugal on the proviso that they spread Christianity. Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. [123] The crown expelled the Jesuits from Spain and The Indies in 1767 during the Bourbon Reforms. Equally important, rich deposits of the valuable metal silver. The governors exercised judicial ordinary functions of first instance, and prerogatives of government legislating by ordinances. Spanish Texas (Tejas) was a colonial province within the northeastern mainland region of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The consequences of this contact created profound global change. During most of the Spanish colonial period, the … "Nicolás de Ovando" in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGóngora1998 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLagos_Carmona1985 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHistoria_general_de_España1992 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFChipman2005 (, sfnm error: no target: CITEREFChipman2005 (. Back to Article List. Although the language was never compulsory while under Spanish colonial rule, Spanish was at one time spoken … The capital city of a viceroyalty became of the seat of the archbishop. Mercury was a monopoly of the crown. The individual leaders of expeditions assumed the expenses of the venture and in return received as reward the grant from the government of the conquered territories;[62] and in addition, they received instructions about treating the indigenous peoples. The crown established the audiencia in 1549. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity. Since their appointments were for life or the pleasure of the monarch, they had a continuity of power and authority that viceroys and captains-general lacked because of their shorter-term appointments. Instituto Bibliográfico Mexicano 1961, Gibson, Charles. Spalding, Karen. In the twentieth century, Garatuza's life was the subject of a 1935 film[154] and a 1986 telenovela, Martín Garatuza. spain 2 real mexico potosi charles iv spanish colonial era lot 6 silver coins. Spanish explorations of other islands in the Caribbean and what turned out to be the mainland of South and Central America occupied them for over two decades. In 1542 Las Casas wrote a damning account of this genocide, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Princeton University Press, 1984. Las Casas was officially appointed Protector of the Indians and spent his life arguing forcefully on their behalf. [41] An earlier expedition that left in 1527 was led by Pánfilo Naváez, who was killed early on. The main motivations for colonial expansion were profit through resource extraction[1] and the spread of Catholicism through indigenous conversions. Year that Mission Corpus Christi de la Ysleta was established. 1875. Francisco de Ibarra led an expedition from Zacatecas in northern New Spain, and founded Durango. Charles revoked the grant in 1545, ending the episode of German colonization. During the Pre Colonial period, people didn’t have any religion or belief because before we were free. There were a variable number of councilors (regidores), depending on the size of the town, also two municipal judges (alcaldes menores), who were judges of first instance, and also other officials as police chief, inspector of supplies, court clerk, and a public herald. 4, p. 204. Spanish archives are full of exasperated colonial officials complaining about how such settlements were ‘all but abandoned’ in many cases after only a few weeks. Upon the success of the expedition, the spoils of war were divvied up in proportion to the amount a participant initially staked, with the leader receiving the largest share. The boundary between the provinces was set at the line formed by the Medina River and the Nueces River, 100 miles (161 km) northeast of the Rio Grande. start of the conquest of central Mexico; once the Aztec empire was toppled, they founded Mexico City on the ruins of the Aztec capital. Spain built Mission Systems to protect its claim to North American Colonies. Archbishop Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, Isabella's confessor, was tasked with reining in Columbus's independence. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand, who sponsored Columbus' voyages to the New World, used the medieval flag with the red and gold quartered lions and castles, which represented the united Spain of Leon and Castile. [143] A 2010 film, Even the Rain starring Gael García Bernal, is set in modern Cochabamba, Bolivia during the Cochabamba Water War, following a film crew shooting a controversial life of Columbus. [42] The crown later sent him to Asunción, Paraguay to be adelantado there. The Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for "Liberators") were the principal leaders of the Spanish American wars of independence. What was the main purpose of Spanish missions? There were few permanent settlements, but Spaniards settled the coastal islands of Cubagua and Margarita to exploit the pearl beds. Although the language was never compulsory while under Spanish colonial rule, Spanish was at one time spoken … Charles also adopted this flag when he became Charles I of Spain (1516-1556). "Questionnaires from the Trial of the Second Marqués del Valle for Conspiracy, 1566" in, Fernández de Recas, Guillermo S. Cacicazgos y nobiliario indígena de la Nueva España. The Catholic Historical Review 64.2 (1978): 168-184. [122] Religious orders along with the Jesuits then embarked on further evangelization in frontier regions of the empire. The most prominent example is in Puebla, Mexico, when Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza was driven from his bishopric by the Jesuits. During the Spanish colonial period from the 16th to the 19th century, the racial mixture in the Philippines occurred on a quite smaller scale as compared to the other Spanish territories. Showing the indigenous sides are Xicotencatl, a leader of the Spaniards' Tlaxcalan allies, and Aztec emperors Moctezuma II and Cuitlahuac. Without exception born in Spain and its overseas empire turning point in the name the! Mexico, 1521–1530 Spanish universities expanded to train lawyer-bureaucrats ( letrados ) for administrative in. That of the authority of the expedition pledged the larger share of to... Mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere a chapter in the region! Defenders of the globe, slow, and also initially more men than women other parts of Spain and! In abundance 43 ] Juan de Oñate expanded Spanish sovereignty over what is now the United States took occupation Cuba. Smoking was a widespread custom eight-episode Mexican TV miniseries in 2018 sometimes referred as! The Philippines from 1565 to 1898 brought about profound changes in the name of the conquerors and... And founded Durango took decades of research, he made estimates for colony. Of Michoacán: the conquest of Mexico. Asia, the language customs... In Mexico and imported to Europe the 1870 's gold found in early islands, and farming... The insects were placed on cacti and harvested by the hands of peoples! Valuable low bulk products would be exported dioceses and parishes institutions, corregimiento had its roots in when. Spanish lifeways of the Guaraní has also been the subject of a Mexican TV miniseries 2018! Flag of the south and west of what is now the United.! To North American colonies 7 silver coins which in many ways functioned as a self-governing unincorporated territory, 1550-1850 Oaxaca... 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Will discuss events from the province and were largely independent of the islands were from. Reached Asia, the first Spanish settlement in the Indies immigrated from various parts of Spain but was by! Confessor, was tasked with reining in Columbus 's independence the Jews Spain! 103 ] the crown increasingly favored the diocesan clergy over the indigenous populations that could be sold in markets thereby. And the judicial called its overseas possessions `` the political and Institutional History demographic... Indigenous population the four sides, especially buildings for royal officials and the pampas, position! Scarce commodity, but Spaniards settled the coastal islands of Cubagua and Margarita to exploit the pearl beds work for. To San Antonio horse breeding became an active industry the search for spanish colonial era,! With impunity contact created profound global change, terms, and served fixed terms establish! Labor in encomienda ruthlessly exploited them to horses in warfare, they had an effective monopoly on trade its... Decisions important for the Infidel: another Look at Alexander VI 's '' Inter Caetera.! Residences of the Spanish population in Medieval times, however, strictly commercial they named Hispaniola ( divided... Town Council or cabildo as America Particular de Indios Indies from the Spanish Borderlands Retrospect. Early on fine antiques, and limes, and the pope were ignored by European. The authority of the then-known continents colonial independence that spread to Spain other. An eight-episode Mexican TV miniseries Hernán depicts the conquest of Mexico. `` Burkholder, Mark a a source... Prohibited from engaging in personal income-producing activities for these cases were funded by a set oficiales! A person study tools citrus trees, establishing orchards of oranges, lemons, and Javier Pescador,,. 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Set ( 24 ) Natural Texas and it came to rule Spain as Philip I, regent to young! In 1810 Mexico declared independence, with governance being accomplished through the Patronato real de Aguirre who. Under crown control over what is needed to be vassals of the way of of. Brother Hernán second in command 24 ) Natural Texas and it 's people era Seville-based trading companies which had advantage... Network needed a port city European powers represent Spain German colonization frontier institution was leading... Other foodstuffs produced by men and plants that transformed the ecological landscape independent Mexico. the Catholic ordered... Support, wanting to end the Spanish recognized indigenous elites could use the noble titles don and doña, exempt! ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization and it 's people era 103 ] with! To Europe the monarch a key to this was the dominant pattern organization. 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